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Welche Verfassungen schützen bereits sexuelle Orientierung/ sexuelle Identität?

Insgesamt haben 12 Staaten in ihrer Verfassung ein ausdrückliches Verbot der Diskriminierung aufgrund der sexuellen Orientierung/ Identität: Bolivien (2009), Ecuador (1998), Fiji-Inseln (2013), Kosovo (2008), Malta (2014), Mexiko (2011), Nepal (2015), Neuseeland (1993), Österreich (2012), Portugal (2005), Schweden (2003) und Südafrika (1994/ 1996).

Bolivien

Article 14

I. Every human being, without distinction, has legal status and capacity under the law and enjoys the rights recognized in this Constitution

II. The State prohibits and punishes all forms of discrimination based on sex, color, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, origin, culture, nationality, citizenship, language, religious belief, ideology, political affiliation or philosophy, civil status, economic or social condition, type of occupation, level of education, disability, pregnancy, and any other discrimination that attempts to or results in the annulment of or harm to the equal recognition, enjoyment or exercise of the rights of all people.

Ecuador

Article 11

The exercise of rights shall be governed by the following principles:

1. Rights can be exercised, promoted and enforced individually or collectively before competent authorities; these authorities shall guarantee their enforcement.

2. All persons are equal and shall enjoy the same rights, duties and opportunities. No one shall be discriminated against for reasons of ethnic belonging, place of birth, age, sex, gender identity, cultural identity, civil status, language, religion, ideology, political affiliation, legal record, socio-economic condition, migratory status, sexual orientation, health status, HIV carrier, disability, physical difference or any other distinguishing feature, whether personal or collective, temporary or permanent, which might be aimed at or result in the diminishment or annulment of recognition, enjoyment or exercise of rights. All forms of discrimination are punishable by law.

The State shall adopt affirmative action measures that promote real equality for the benefit of the rights-bearers who are in a situation of inequality.

Europäische Grundrechtecharta

Artikel 21 Nichtdiskriminierung

(1) Diskriminierungen insbesondere wegen des Geschlechts, der Rasse, der Hautfarbe, der eth-nischen oder sozialen Herkunft, der genetischen Merkmale, der Sprache, der Religion oder der Weltanschauung, der politischen oder sonstigen Anschauung, der Zugehörigkeit zu einer nationalen Minderheit, des Vermögens, der Geburt, einer Behinderung, des Alters oder der sexuellen Ausrichtung sind verboten.

(2) Unbeschadet besonderer Bestimmungen der Verträge ist in ihrem Anwendungsbereich jede Diskriminierung aus Gründen der Staatsangehörigkeit verboten.

Fiji-Inseln

26. Right to equality and freedom from discrimination

(1) Every person is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection, treatment and benefit of the law.

(2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and freedoms recognised in this Chapter or any other written law.

(3) A person must not be unfairly discriminated against, directly or indirectly on the grounds of his or her

—(a) actual or supposed personal characteristics or circumstances, including race, culture, ethnic or social origin, colour, place of origin, sex, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, birth, primary language, economic or social or health status, disability, age, religion, conscience, marital status or pregnancy;

Or (b) opinions or beliefs, except to the extent that those opinions or beliefs involve harm to others or the diminution of the rights or freedoms of others,

or on any other ground prohibited by this Constitution.

Kosovo

Article 24 [Equality Before the Law]

1. All are equal before the law. Everyone enjoys the right to equal legal protection without discrimination.

2. No one shall be discriminated against on grounds of race, color, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, relation to any community, property, economic and social condition, sexual orientation, birth, disability or other personal status.

3. Principles of equal legal protection shall not prevent the imposition of measures necessary to protect and advance the rights of individuals and groups who are in unequal positions. Such measures shall be applied only until the purposes for which they are imposed have been fulfilled.

Malta

45. Protection from discrimination on the grounds of race, etc.

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-articles (4), (5) and (7) of this article, no law shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-articles (6), (7) and (8) of this article, no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting by virtue of any written law or in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.

(3) In this article, the expression "discriminatory" means affording different treatment to different persons attributable wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex, sexual orientation or gender identity whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.

Mexico

Article 1

In the United Mexican States, all individuals shall be entitled to the human rights granted by this Constitution and the international treaties signed by the Mexican State, as well as to the guarantees for the protection of these rights. Such human rights shall not be restricted or suspended, except for the cases and under the conditions established by this Constitution itself.

The provisions relating to human rights shall be interpreted according to this Constitution and the international treaties on the subject, working in favor of the broader protection of people at all times.

All authorities, in their areas of competence, are obliged to promote, respect, protect and guarantee Human Rights, in accordance with the principles of universality, interdependence, indivisibility and progressiveness. As a consequence, the State must prevent, investigate, penalize and rectify violations to Human Rights, according to the law.

Slavery shall be forbidden in Mexico. Every individual who is considered as a slave at a foreign country shall be freed and protected under the law by just entering the country.

Any form of discrimination, based on ethnic or national origin, gender, age, disabilities, social status, medical conditions, religion, opinions, sexual orientation, marital status, or any other form, which violates the human dignity or seeks to annul or diminish the rights and freedoms of the people, is prohibited.

Nepal

Article 18 Right to equality

(1). All citizens shall be equal before law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of law.

(2). There shall be no discrimination in the application of general laws on the grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, physical conditions, disability, health condition, matrimonial status, pregnancy, economic condition, language or geographical region, or ideology or any other such grounds.

(3). The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.

Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.

Explanation: With reference to this Part and Part 4, “financially deprived” means the person having the income less than prescribed in the Federal law.

(4).There shall not be any gender discriminations regarding remuneration for the same work and social security.

(5).There shall be no gender discrimination regarding the right to parental property with regard to all family members.

Neuseeland

The Human Rights Act

The Human Rights Act 1993 is aimed at giving all people equal opportunities and preventing unfair treatment on the basis of irrelevant personal characteristics.
The Human Rights Act covers discrimination on the grounds of:

  • Sex, marital status, religious belief, ethical belief, colour, race, ethnic or national origins, disability, age, political opinion, employment status, family status, sexual orientation.


It's unlawful to discriminate someone on these grounds in the following areas of public life:

  • Employment, education, access to public places, provision of goods and services, housing and accommodation.

Österreich

Verfassungsgesetze in Österreich

In Österreich wird nicht so oft über "unsere Verfassung" gesprochen, und es gibt auch keine "Verfassungsurkunde", auf die man sich beruft. Stattdessen gibt es eine Reihe von Verfassungsgesetzen.

1955 trat Österreich dem Europarat bei. Schon 1950 hatten die Mitglieder des Europarats die Europäische Menschenrechtskonvention unterzeichnet. Da es in Österreich noch immer keinen neuen Grundrechtskatalog gab, wurde 1958 die Europäische Menschenrechtskonvention in die Verfassung übernommen. Sie ist seitdem ein wichtiger Bestandteil des österreichischen Verfassungsrechts und gewann für die BürgerInnen immer mehr an Bedeutung.

Der Verfassungsgerichtshof (VfGH) hat am 14. März 2012 aus Anlass einer (erfolglosen) Verfassungsbeschwerde von Asylwerbern zu Recht erkannt, dass die am 1. Dezember 2009 in Kraft getretene Charta der Grundrechte der Europäischen Union in Österreich analog zur 1964 in Verfassungsrang gehobenen Europäischen Menschenrechtskonvention Verfassungsrang besitzt. Österreichische Gesetze und Verwaltungsakte, die der Charta widersprechen, können nun vom VfGH als verfassungswidrig aufgehoben werden.

Portugal

Article 13(Principle of equality)

1. All citizens possess the same social dignity and are equal before the law.

2. No one maybe privileged, favoured, prejudiced, deprived of any right or exempted from any duty for reasons of ancestry, sex, race, language, territory of origin, religion, political or ideological beliefs, education, economic situation, social circumstances or sexual orientation.

Schweden

Art. 2.

Public power shall be exercised with respect for the equal worth of all and the liberty and dignity of the individual.
The personal, economic and cultural welfare of the individual shall be fundamental aims of public activity. In particular, the public institutions shall secure the right to employment, housing and education, and shall promote social care and social security, as well as favourable conditions for good health.
The public institutions shall promote sustainable development leading to a good environment for present and future generations.
The public institutions shall promote the ideals of democracy as guidelines in all sectors of society and protect the private and family lives of the individual.
The public institutions shall promote the opportunity for all to attain participation and equality in society and for the rights of the child to be safeguarded.
The public institutions shall combat discrimination of per-sons on grounds of gender, colour, national or ethnic origin, linguistic or religious affiliation, functional disability, sexual orientation, age or other circumstance affecting the individual. The opportunities of the Sami people and ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities to preserve and develop a cultural and social life of their own shall be promoted.

Südafrika

Article 9. Equality

1. Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law.

2. Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and freedoms. To promote the achievement of equality, legislative and other measures designed to protect or advance persons, or categories of persons, disadvantaged by unfair discrimination may be taken.

3. The state may not unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds, including race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language and birth.

4. No person may unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds in terms of subsection (3). National legislation must be enacted to prevent or prohibit unfair discrimination.

5. Discrimination on one or more of the grounds listed in subsection (3) is unfair unless it is established that the discrimination is fair.